To master the art of selecting tones that are specifically attuned to a client, take Dr. Lemare-Calaba’s workshop: Musical Overtone Feedback as Auditory Reinforcement in Biofeedback or Neurofeedback
To proceed on your own, some basic choices and ideas are presented below.
- Choose a fundamental you would like to work with from the chart below entitled Fundamentals and their First Seven Overtones. (For example, the note A.) The fundamental and its first seven overtones are the notes you will be using in your exercise. Tones are listed in the mathematical order in which they unfold. The fundamental is usually sounded first. It’s best to use to overtones in order at first so that the brain learns the progression. Then they can be used in any order.
Fundamentals and their First Seven Overtones
|Fundamental||1st Overtone||2nd Overtone||3rd Overtone||4th Overtone||5th Overtone||6th Overtone||7th Overtone|
|A 110 Hz||A 220 Hz||E 329 Hz||A 440 Hz||C# 554 Hz||E 659 Hz||B 784 Hz||A 889 Hz|
|A#/B♭ 116 Hz||B♭ 233 Hz||F 349 Hz||B♭ 466 Hz||D♭ 587 Hz||F 698 Hz||A♭ 830 Hz||B♭ 932 Hz|
|B 123 Hz||B 246 Hz||F# 370 Hz||B 493 Hz||D# 622 Hz||F# 740 Hz||A 880 Hz||B 987 Hz|
|C 65 Hz||C 130 Hz||G 196 Hz||C 261 Hz||E 329 Hz||G 392 Hz||B♭ 466 Hz||C 523 Hz|
|C#/D♭ 69 Hz||C# 138 Hz||G# 207 Hz||C# 277 Hz||E#/F 349 Hz||G# 415 Hz||B 493 Hz||C# 554 Hz|
|D 73 Hz||D 146 Hz||A 220 Hz||D 293 Hz||F# 370 Hz||A 440 Hz||C 523 Hz||D 587 Hz|
|E 82 Hz||E 164 Hz||B 246 Hz||E 329 Hz||G# 415 Hz||B 493 Hz||D 587 Hz||E 659 Hz|
|F 87 Hz||F 174 Hz||C 261 Hz||F 349 Hz||A 440 Hz||C 523 Hz||E♭622 Hz||F 698 Hz|
|F#/G♭92 Hz||F# 185 Hz||C# 277 Hz||F# F# 370 Hz||A# 466 Hz||C# 554 Hz||E 659 Hz||F# 740 Hz|
|G 98 Hz||G 196 Hz||D 293 Hz||G 392 Hz||B 493 Hz||D 587 Hz||F 698 Hz||G 784 Hz|
|G#/A♭103 Hz||G# 207 Hz||D# 311 Hz||G# 415 Hz||B#/C 523 Hz||D# 622 Hz||F# 740 Hz||G# 930 Hz|
- Choose the octave range you would like to use. (Higher range usually is good for focus, lower range for relaxation. Here are two charts to guide you—the first to help you choose an octave range and the second to help you hop around different octave ranges mathematically.
Range of Low to High Frequencies (Middle C on the piano is 261 Hz)
Mathematical Ratios of Octaves Based on Different Musical Notes (Measured in Hertz)
- Decide what kind of durations you need for the sounds in the protocol. Short sounds are good for immediate acknowledgement that the goal has been achieved and long sounds are good for pauses between sets or consolidation periods. (Short and long sounds can be combined in the same protocol.)
- Download the single tones in the Library that fit your frequency and duration needs. Click on the sounds to play them so you can hear what you’re choosing.
- If you are uncertain what to choose, here are some ideas:
Download #1 (Piano) Fundamental of C:
- 261 Hz (short) immediate reinforcement tone
- 131 Hz (short) for use after a certain number of points are acquired
- 66 Hz (long) during pause between exercises
- 131 Hz Overtone series (long) for closing eyes after exercise and consolidating
131 Hz Cycle of 5ths (long) for closing eyes after exercise and consolidating
Download #2 (Bass) Fundamental of C:
- 130 Hz (short) for immediate reinforcement tone
- 65 Hz (short) after certain number of points are acquired
- 32 Hz (long) for full resonance and sensory experience of timbre and frequency
- 65 Hz riff for consolidation period (and a humorous touch)
Download #3 (Flute) Fundamental of C:
- 523 Hz (short) for immediate reinforcement tone
- 1047 Hz (short) after certain number of points are acquired
- 261 Hz (long) for full resonance and sensory experience of timbre and frequency
- 523 Hz riff for consolidation period
Rain Stick for consolidation period
Starting on a different fundamental tone is easy but you will have to download the tones individually from the Library. Simply consult the chart of overtone frequencies for the fundamental you want, use the same pattern (or invent your own) and substitute your own tones.
Dr. Lemare-Calaba is available for consultation to help clinicians construct individualized auditory reinforcement protocols.